", "Turkey constitutional changes: what are they, how did they come about and how are they different? The Sephardi Jews, who were expelled from the Iberian peninsula and southern Italy under the control of the Spanish Empire, were welcomed into the Ottoman Empire between the late-15th and mid-16th centuries. [229] The European Court of Human Rights and other international human rights organisations have condemned Turkey for human rights abuses. The first narrative film, Sedat Simavi's The Spy, was released in 1917. [288] In 2004, it was estimated that 46 percent of total disposable income was received by the top 20 percent of income earners, while the lowest 20 percent received only 6 percent. The Tanzimat reforms, initiated by Mahmud II just before his death in 1839, aimed to modernise the Ottoman state in line with the progress that had been made in Western Europe. Numerous Turkish playwrights emerged in this era; some of them wrote on romantic subjects, while others were interested in social problems, and still others dealt with nationalistic themes. In 1517, Selim I expanded Ottoman rule into Algeria and Egypt, and created a naval presence in the Red Sea. Totten, Samuel, Paul Robert Bartrop, Steven L. Jacobs (eds. [189] In 2015, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar formed a "strategic alliance" against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. Most of the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between the years 1896 and 1923. [251], Amnesty International stated that it had gathered evidence of war crimes and other violations committed by Turkish and Turkey-backed Syrian forces who are said to "have displayed a shameful disregard for civilian life, carrying out serious violations and war crimes, including summary killings and unlawful attacks that have killed and injured civilians". L'autre Turquie : Le mouvement aléviste et ses territoires Even further east, there was an extension of the Habsburg-Ottoman conflict, in that the Ottomans also had to send soldiers to their farthest and easternmost vassal and territory, the Aceh Sultanate[66][67] in Southeast Asia, to defend it from European colonizers as well as the Latino invaders who had crossed from Latin America and had Christianized the formerly Muslim-dominated Philippines. The mix of cultural influences in Turkey is dramatised, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the novels of Orhan Pamuk, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.[468]. It consists of the construction of a spaceport, the development of satellite launch vehicles as well as the establishment of remote earth stations. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature, Volume 23", "Ottoman/Turkish Visions of the Nation, 1860–1950", "An Ottoman warning for indebted America", "Collapse of the Ottoman Empire, 1918–1920", "Why Turkey hasn't forgotten about the First World War", "ECHR: Why Turkey won't talk about the Armenian genocide", "Creating a Modern 'Zone of Genocide': The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923", "Turkey holds first election that allows women to vote", "Growth in United Nations membership (1945–2005)", "Turkish Military Leaders Held for Role in '97 Coup", "U.S. Department of State - Bureau of Counterterrorism: Foreign Terrorist Organizations", "Council of the European Union: Council Decision (CFSP) 2019/1341 of 8 August 2019 updating the list of persons, groups and entities subject to Articles 2, 3 and 4 of Common Position 2001/931/CFSP on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism", Timeline: Kurdish militant group PKK's three-decade war with Turkey, "Turkish forces kill 32 Kurdish militants in bloody weekend as conflict escalates", "Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM", "What's driving unrest and protests in Turkey? Refworld is the leading source of information necessary for taking quality decisions on refugee status. In the early decades of the Turkish Republic, the government (or banks established and owned by the government, such as Türkiye İş Bankası (1924), Sanayi ve Maadin Bankası (1925), Emlak ve Eytam Bankası (1926), Central Bank of Turkey (1930), Sümerbank (1933), İller Bankası (1933), Etibank (1935), Denizbank (1937), Halk Bankası (1938), etc.) After the Tanzimat (Reformation) period in the 19th century, characters in Turkish theatre were modernised and plays were performed on European-style stages, with actors wearing European costumes. The women's national volleyball team won the gold medal at the 2015 European Games, the silver medal at the 2003 European Championship, the bronze medal at the 2011 European Championship, and the bronze medal at the 2012 FIVB World Grand Prix. One early master by the pseudonym of Şebek is mentioned posthumously in the earliest Ottoman text on the art known as the Tertib-i Risâle-i Ebrî, which is dated based on internal evidence to after 1615. In the east, the Ottomans were often at war with Safavid Persia over conflicts stemming from territorial disputes or religious differences between the 16th and 18th centuries. [247] In its resolution "The functioning of democratic institutions in Turkey" on 22 June 2016, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe warned that "recent developments in Turkey pertaining to freedom of the media and of expression, erosion of the rule of law and the human rights violations in relation to anti-terrorism security operations in south-east Turkey have (...) raised serious questions about the functioning of its democratic institutions."[248]. The text of this manuscript was rendered in a delicate cut paper découpage calligraphy by Mehmed bin Gazanfer and completed in 1540, and features many marbled and decorative paper borders. As a result, an estimated 800,000 to 1,500,000 Armenians were killed. [401] However, AKP policies have also caused an increase in interest and support for secularism in Turkey. Charles A. Truxillo (2012), Jain Publishing Company, "Crusaders in the Far East: The Moro Wars in the Philippines in the Context of the Ibero-Islamic World War". Un attentat-suicide contre une loge maçonnique a fait deux morts mars 2004. [104][105][106] In 1999 PKK's founder Abdullah Öcalan was arrested and sentenced for terrorism[101][102] and treason charges. [126][127] A decentralisation program for Turkey has been a topic of discussion in the country's academics, politics and the broader public.[128][129]. [107][108] In the past, various Kurdish groups have unsuccessfully sought separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdish state, while others have more recently pursued provincial autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. [415][416][417], Christianity has a long history in present-day Turkey, which is the birthplace of numerous Christian apostles and saints, such as Paul of Tarsus, Timothy, Nicholas of Myra, Polycarp of Smyrna and many others. Tentative de coup d'Etat en Turquie, des morts et des blessés. According to the Address-Based Population Recording System of Turkey, the country's population was 74.7 million people in 2011,[351] nearly three-quarters of whom lived in towns and cities. Mais l'islam n'est pas religion dÉtat, contrairement aux pays musulmans. The investment required to comply with EU standards in the sector, especially in wastewater treatment, is estimated to be in the order of €2 billion per year, more than double the current level of investment. - Les Süleymanci : à l’origine un réseau de cours coraniques clandestines dans les années 1950. 2008-2009.xworld.cc. [220], In the latter half of the 1970s, Turkey suffered from political violence between far-left and far-right militant groups, which culminated in the military coup of 1980. The phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. [244][245] Many journalists have been arrested using charges of "terrorism" and "anti-state activities" such as the Ergenekon and Balyoz cases, while thousands have been investigated on charges such as "denigrating Turkishness" or "insulting Islam" in an effort to sow self-censorship. and projecting this "Turkish Islam" abroad. Subsequently, a contest started between the Ottoman and Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Ocean, with a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. L’islam sunnite Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern-day Turkey continues to have a small Jewish population. Arménie Il a fondé l'ordre religieux de Bayramilik et a défendu la croyance d'après laquelle Dieu apparaît dans le cœur des hommes. [472] Internationally acclaimed Turkish jazz and blues musicians and composers include Ahmet Ertegun (founder and president of Atlantic Records), Nükhet Ruacan and Kerem Görsev. [216], In the 2016 Global Peace Index, Turkey ranked 145th out of 163 countries in the world, mainly because of its "increasingly strained relations with its neighbors", according to Forbes. [307], The real GDP growth rate from 2002 to 2007 averaged 6.8 percent annually,[310] which made Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world during that period. [349] Other Turkish scientists include physician Hulusi Behçet who discovered Behçet's disease and mathematician Cahit Arf who defined the Arf invariant. [426] The 1942-44 wealth tax for non-Muslims, the emigration of a portion of Turkish Jews to Israel after 1948, and the ongoing Cyprus dispute, which damaged relations between Turkish Muslims and Christians (culminating in the Istanbul pogrom of 6–7 September 1955), were other important events that contributed to the decline of Turkey's non-Muslim population. L’islam est présent dans la région de l'actuelle Turquie depuis la seconde moitié du XI e siècle, lorsque les seldjoukides ont commencé à s'étendre depuis l'Est vers l'Anatolie orientale. Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by European styles, and this can be particularly seen in the Tanzimat era buildings of Istanbul like the Dolmabahçe, Çırağan, Feriye, Beylerbeyi, Küçüksu, Ihlamur and Yıldız palaces, which were all designed by members of the Balyan family of Ottoman Armenian court architects. [325] İstanbul Airport is planned to be the largest airport in the world, with a capacity to serve 150 million passengers a year. [149] In 2018, Freedom House rated Turkey at 32 (on a 0–100 scale) as Not Free. [136] Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism. [315], Turkey has 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, such as the "Historic Areas of Istanbul", the "Rock Sites of Cappadocia", the "Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük", "Hattusa: the Hittite Capital", the "Archaeological Site of Troy", "Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape", "Hierapolis – Pamukkale", and "Mount Nemrut";[316] and 51 World Heritage Sites in tentative list, such as the archaeological sites or historic urban centres of Göbekli Tepe, Gordion, Ephesus, Aphrodisias, Perga, Lycia, Sagalassos, Aizanoi, Zeugma, Ani, Harran, Mardin, Konya and Alanya. [342] TÜBA is an autonomous scholarly society acting to promote scientific activities in Turkey. [434], In a mid-2010s poll, 2.9% of Turkish respondents identified as atheists. [132], Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933 and before most countries, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. For the newspaper, see, Prehistory of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace. [311] The public debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at 75.9 percent during the recession of 2001, falling to an estimated 26.9 percent by 2013.[312]. La hiérarchie religieuse intégrée dans la bureaucratie ottomane a disparu avec l’ancien empire.